What is object-oriented programming?

Object-oriented programming (OOP) is widely used in various areas of software development. In essence, object-oriented programming is a versatile paradigm that is applied in various domains of software development to improve code organisation, reusability, and maintainability.

So, let's break down the concept of object-oriented programming (OOP) into simpler terms.

  1. Objects:
    • Think of objects like things you see around you. A car, a toy, or even a person can be considered objects. They have characteristics (like color, size, or shape) and things they can do (like a car can drive, a toy can move, and a person can walk).
  2. Classes:
    • Now, imagine there's a blueprint for creating these objects. The blueprint defines what the object will be like—what characteristics it will have and what it can do. This blueprint is called a class.
  3. Properties:
    • The characteristics of an object, like the color of a car or the size of a toy, are called properties. In programming, these are like variables that store information about an object.
  4. Methods:
    • The things an object can do, like a car being able to drive or a toy being able to move, are called methods. In programming, these are like functions or actions that the object can perform.
  5. Inheritance:
    • Imagine you have a family of objects—let's say, different types of cars. They all share some common features, like having wheels and being able to drive. In programming, inheritance allows you to create a new class based on an existing class, inheriting its properties and methods.
  6. Encapsulation:
    • Sometimes, you want to keep certain details about an object hidden or protected. Encapsulation is like putting those details inside a box and only showing what's necessary. This helps to keep things organized and prevents outside interference.
  7. Polymorphism:
    • This is a big word that means "many shapes." In programming, polymorphism allows objects of different classes to be treated as objects of a common type. It lets you use different objects in a unified way.

In summary, object-oriented programming is a way of organizing and designing code by thinking about things as objects with specific characteristics and abilities. It helps make programs more organised, easier to understand, and allows for the reuse of code.